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JOHN C. CALHOUN.

dition which might be advantageously compared with the best in any country. He removed higher up our military posts on the Mississippi and Missouri, and took measures for the security of our frontier and the extension of the fur trade. His whole administration was characterized by system, foresight and activity, and established his reputation as an enlightened and accomplished statesman in the fullest sense of the term.

In the canvass for President which came on towards the close of the last term of Mr. Monroe, the name of Mr. CALHOUN was brought before the public for that distinguished station. He was not however a candidate for the Presidency at the election, but received a large majority of electoral votes for the office of Vice-President, and took his seat as the presiding officer of the Senate on the 4th March, 1825. He was re-elected in 1829, and remained in office until 1832.

During the time that Mr. CALHOUN filled the chair of the Senate, it is conceded by all that he presided over the deliberations of that august body with singular dignity and moderation. Amidst the conflicts of debate, the struggles and activity of party spirit, his justice and impartiality were never questioned. Some of his decisions gave rise to much discussion in the excited state of feeling at the time, and different views were taken of their correctness; but upon a dispassionate and thorough consideration of the subject, the views taken by him of the duties of his office, and of the relations of the Vice-President towards the Senate under the Constitution were concurred in, and since that time the rule established by his decisions has been acted upon as a settled constitutional principle.

The state of things which occasioned Mr. CALHOUN's resignation of the Vice-Presidency, and his immediate transfer as a senator to the body over which he bad with such general satisfaction presided, constitutes one of the most important epochs in the constitutional history of our country. South Carolina through the organ of a convention of her citizens, had declared by a solemn act some of the most important laws of the United States to be unconstitutional, null and void, had pledged herself to renounce all connexion with the Union, if an attempt should be made to carry them into effect by force, and her legislature was engaged in maturing measures necessary to meet such a contin-

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