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EULOGY ON

gency. The President of the United States stood pledged before the country to execute the laws. His name, his services, and his known determined resoluteness of character, gave weight to the solemn pledge which he renewed in a formal proclamation. An appeal to force appeared to be inevitable, and the future to offer little else than confusion, civil discord and violence. Our country was saved from this result by a concession on the part of the government of the United States, made in a spirit of justice and of peace. The obnoxious tariff laws were modified, and all further agitation on the subject was terminated.

Just before the commencement of the session of Congress in which these momentous matters were to be acted upon, Mr. CALHOUN resigned the office of Vice-President, and was appointed Senator by the legislature of South Carolina to fill the vacancy made by the election of General Hayne to the office of Governor of the State. The avowed object of his change of position from that of presiding officer to that of member of the Senate, was to explain before it--as it were in the presence of the people--the principles and conduct of the party of which be prided himself upon being the champion. This act alone bespeaks greatness, and bears the impress of confidence and manly sincerity, of noble disinterestedness and self devotion. Public expectation was at its highest point, and was not long in suspense. At the appropriate time Mr. CALHOUN brought forward a series of resolutions embodying the principles upon which the measures of South Carolina bad been based, and which he relied upon for her justification.

The prominent point disclosed in these resolutions is, that under our system any State has a right to annul at discretion within its limits any law of the General Government which it may deem unconstitutional. The foundation of this right is denied from the assumption that the United States are not one people but a confederacy of States in certain things mutually independent of each other, each possessing the same right to judge of the extent of the obligations subsisting between itself and the others, and of the manner in which those obligations are observed or violated that is possessed and exercised by the parties to an alliance of independent sovereigns; that a breach of the conditions of the compact by one party exempts the others from the


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